How to say the ‘-ed’ sound like a native speaker

Pronunciation is one of the hardest things about learning English. You have practised using the past tense and know that regular verbs add -ed. Writing these verbs is easy, but saying them can be difficult because -ed can have different sounds. Here are the three different sounds and how to know when to use them.

/ɪd/

We use this sound when we add -ed to verbs ending in a d or t sound. This /ɪd/ sound makes another syllable at the end of the verb.

  • wanted: “want-id”
  • found: “found-id”
  • ground: “ground-id”
  • land: “land-id”
  • visit: “visit-id”
  • paint: “paint-id”

What counts is the last sound, so even if the last letter of the verb is an e, if it sounds like a d or a t, we add /ɪd/ .

  • taste: “taste-id”
  • waste: “waste-id”
  • promote: “promote-id”
  • code: “code-id”
  • shade: “shade-id”

/d/

We use this sound when we add -ed to verbs ending in voiced sounds. A voiced sound is a sound we use our voice box (in the throat) to create. There is a simple test to check if a sound is voiced. Place your fingers across the front of your neck and say one sound or letter. If you feel a vibration in your throat, the sound is voiced. All vowel sounds are voiced. The other voiced sounds are:

  • /b/ “b”
  • /d/ “d”
  • /g/ “g”
  • /ʤ/ “j”
  • /l/ “l”
  • /m/ “m”
  • /n/ “n”
  • /r/ “r”
  • /v/ “v”
  • /w/ “w”
  • /j/ “y”
  • /z/ “z”
  • /ð/ “th” in this
  • /ʒ/ “s” in vision
  • /ŋ/ “ng”

When we add the /d/ sound, there is no extra syllable, so a verb with one syllable still only has one syllable in the past form. Some examples of verbs that ended in a voiced sound and add the /d/ sound are:

  • logged: “log-d”
  • thrived: “thrive-d”
  • advised: “advise-d”
  • planned: “plan-d”
  • called: “call-d”
  • played: “play-d”
  • tried: “try-d”
  • measure: “measure-d”

/t/

We use this sound when we add -ed to verbs ending in unvoiced sounds. An unvoiced sound is a sound we do not use our voice box (in the throat) to create. We just use air and the shape of our mouth, tongue and lips to make the sound. If you place a finger across the front of your neck and say an unvoiced letter or sound, there is no vibration. Unvoiced sounds are:

  • /f/ “f”
  • /h/ “h”
  • /k/ “k”
  • /p/ “p”
  • /s/ “s”
  • /t/ “t”
  • /ʧ/ “ch”
  • /ʃ/ “sh”
  • /θ/ “th” in three

If a verb ends with one of the above sounds, we say the -ed as a /t/. Again, we do not add an extra syllable in the past tense, just the /t/ sound. Here are some examples:

  • packed: “pack-t”
  • stopped: “stop-t”
  • missed: “miss-t”
  • watched: “watch-t”
  • wished: “wish-t”
  • mixed: “mix-t”
Extra practice: When you learn new verbs, practise using them in
the past too. Here are more tips on learning vocabulary.

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